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A project of Volunteers in Asia 

A Cookbook for By tiding a Solar Food Dryer 
by Arnold and Maria Valdez 

Published by: 

Arnold and Maria Valdez 



Available from: 

out of print 

Reproduced by permission. 



Reproduction of this microfiche document in any 
form is subject to the same restrictions as those 
of the original document. 



A GooJcJbooJc 

for Building 
A Soiar Food Dryer 




t t 
ll I 



cookbook 
for building 

solar food dry&r 




© Amie and Maria Valdez, 1977. 



Printed by O&V Printing, Inc. 
(23 4th Street, AlamoM, Colorado 81101 



Selecting, Drying and Storing Dehydrated Foodstuffs 



WHY DRY: AN INTRODUCTION 

Food drying as food gathering has been one of mankind's baste instincts for survival. When the first /rests began to bring the 
coolness of winter closer, the necessity to keep warm and store of the harvest became the prime concern for continuing existance. 
The burden of providing grams, vegetables, fruits and game for the winter table, as well as seeds for the next planting season, 
usually fell to the woman. She found ways to preserve by eoofcing, boiling, bottling, iutcirg. Jellying and drying. Of these 
methods, the oldest, simplest, most natural and economical is drying. Sun drying for the American Indian and other early 
pioneer* was as standard as canning is today. For these migrators who moved from hunting ground to hunting ground the 
constant problem of presenting any surplus foodstuffs was done by drying. Dry foods were light weight, less bulky, and could be 
preserved longer; a truly precious commodity by which whole communities survived. With hot water and processing equipment 
belonging to another distant time space, these early women adapted their food preserving needs in harmony with nature 
providing by drying with sunpower in their open space kitchens. 



ITS YOU CHOICE TRY drying with imagination 

Just about anything can be dried. My first drying experiences were totally motivated by the survival instinct, some 
imagination, and the need to preserve simply, a harvest surplus. Without running water, conventional power, or the proper 
canning equipment, the necessity for food preservation focused on drying. 

That first season f did some limited air drying above our wood stove, making salt jerky and apples. My second attempt 
combined two natural principles of the previous season - heat, and air - but not without bugor dust problems. An evolvement had 
taken place, and I was aided by "Hilda", a recycled solar space heater built by Amle. "Hilda" was a dtsgarded grain bin with a 
face lift. Double glased and insulated, she has a small fan, 230 aluminum beer cans for an absorber, and storage area filled with 
river rocks. During the harvest we converted the rock storage to a space which accommodated three levels of trays. I solar dried 
about one-half of my harvest, producing everything from carrots to a squash, chili, and tomato soup mix-— apples with limes, to 
bananas and pumpkins. Dehydrating enhances and draws out new flavors and sweetnesses, as those who sampled my dried 
"carrots" or "bananas" can testify. Dried onions, celery, carrots, and zucchini can be used Instead of chips for dips, or powdered 
in a blender to produce a vegetable salt. Combined with cabbage and tomatoes, etc.... dried vegetables can become soup, and 
salad croutons. Fruits such as apples, peaches, pears, pineapple, bananas, etc. are an alternative to sweeteners, and a must for 
travel with little ones. Mixed with whole wheat, oats, pumpkin seeds and honey, dried fruits become a high protein snack. We 
have included a detailed bibliography containing references for many old stand by's, as well as recent creative ways for serving 
dehydrated foodstuffs. I highly recommend those books specialty marked (*) as good reference reading, my favorites being Dry 
It, You'll Like It, The Homestead Kitchen and Cellar, and Manna, Foods of the Frontier. 

A FEW FINAL REMINDERS FOR SELECTION: 

1) Try to use fresh and somewhat undamaged produce. Black bananas In the mushy stage will only stick when dry, and If pried 
will pick up wood stats off trays. The same goes for any other fruit or vegetable. The taste of over-ripe dry produce Is not as 
flavorful or chewable as when fresh produce Is used. 

21 Try to plan your drying with each months harvest as you would canning. Cherries and apricots In July. Fruits In August. 
Apples and greens In September. Herb and root crops In October. Chili, cabbage and other garden produce or game in 
November. The remainder of the year can be planned according to bargain aurplusses or at the end of safe winter storage for 
apples and bananas. 

31 Try drying with your imagination. 

Preparation, Processing and Storing Dry Food Stuffs 

In comparison to canning, solar food drying Is a very safe and economical way to process foods. Since my first experiences with 
food drying I have continued to increase the use of dehydrating. I produce half of my families table needs via dry fruits and 
vegetables. An average season will produce two bushels of apples, one bushel each of pears, peaches and plums, as we'} as my 



entire karvest yield of zucchini, squash, pumpkin grten tomato, carrots, dill, mint, rosehip, chili and a hind quarter of elk. In 
between seasons / manage bananas, more apples, or plums. The other half of what I store is row packed, and hot bathed fruit and 
pickles. 

Solar food drying needs only one-fourth of the space canned foods do, and hue a ' 'shelf -life ' ' four or five times greater. There 
are no stoves, pons, pressure guages, jars, lids, syrups or spices. You need not pressure or sulfer your foods of their vitamins. 
Drying foods, skins and all, help keep food nutrition values high. When completely dehydrated, produce will lose 90 to 99 per cent 
of their water content. Food spoilers such as molds and yeasts cannot /unction without the presence of large amounts of moisture. 
According to U.S.D.A. Research, dry food usually contains about 2.5 to 4 per cent of water content depending on the produce. 
Safe moisture contents range from 10 per cent for fruits to 20 per cent for vegetables. Most reference sources I consulted are 
opinionated in different directions as te the need for treatment by sulfering, blanching and oven pasteurization. Two new 
references "Dry It, You'll Like It" and "The Homestead. Kitchen and Cellar" encaurage a return to the natural unpealed, thin 
sliced and untreated method. I personally have tested successfully this natural approach, and find that produce two or three years 
old is stilt preserved and tastes good. 

I am in agreement that sulfering is a needless and unnatural process, and food keeps just as well without this procedure which is 
used to preserve color and vitamin content The same effect can be achieved by.- 1) Juice or honey-dipping produce to retain 
color. 2) If you maintain a temperature of not more than 11C° your vitamin retention of "C" remains high - most charts including 
the one listed in this text, call for much higher temperature ranges, ft is safe ts say that thinly sliced produce in an efficient solar 
dryer between 90° and 110° will achieve a safe medium. 3) The skins on your produce will prevent your foods from suffering the 
"second biggest nutritive loss", according to Adell Davis. Examples of vitamin losses suffered by peeling the skins off root crops 
is cited in "Let's Cook ft Right". Vegetables such as carrots, turnips, etc. have their mineral content under their skins. I dry all 
my produce, which is thinly sliced, in their skins and find that even bitter tasting pumpkin and squash lose their pungent flavors 
and become sweet. Although your solar dried produce will not resemble in color or softness canned or commercially sulfur 
d i oxid e treated food stuffs, yours will be higher in vitamin content, more healthful, and a lot more economical per pound than any 
other method. 

A FEW GENERAL RULES OF THUMB TO FOLLOW: 

J) As previously stated, select firm and ripe produce. Remember: Dry produce will only be as good an the quality of the fresh 
product you p r o cesse d. 

2) Wash and dry, but do not peel your produce. The thinner you slice your fruits and vegetables, the quicker they dry. 

31 Use only wood or nylon mesh for trays, as illustrated. {Picture A). Cheese cloth leaves its fibers on bananas and apples, so I 
don't recommend its use. Cedar, redwood or green pine wilt leave its odor, resin, or stain your foods. I have found a good, sturdy 
and recycled material for tray bottoms can be old bamboo curtains. They are easily cleaned and have enough air space needed. 

4} Spread your produce so that they do not cluster and stop the airflow process. Check your produce once every two days and 
re-arrange dry and not so dry produce. Some foods require dark or light dry conditions as is recommended In the table reference. 
You can, with this particular dryer, arrange top troys for light and botto*. ' trays for darker drying as Illustrated (See Picture B) . By 
keeping tome produce to the rear end of the tray in the shadows, the tame effect can result. I have dropped an old guaxe curtain 
over the front end to achieve both light and heat control. 

5) Keep a record on each batch. Its before and after weight and temperature range {See Data Sheet) . It Is Important to have a 
small household thermometer inside someplace to check the critical 110° limit. At the sun's high point, or when that limit is 
endangered, simply drape your collector with white gauze. 

6) If night temperatures seem aery cold as in early winter, remove your trays and store inside. Freeze drying is okay, but 
produce becomes aery brittle and not as tasty. (Picture Q. 



Storage 

Your fruits and vegetables are considered dry when no water content can be detected from cut pieces. If the middle feels or 
looks moist, dry a bit longer. Fruits are considered dry when ' 'tough ", leaderly and pliable. Vegetables should be brittle or crisp 
as in a chip. 

You can weigh your produce before and after. If it has lost half of Its original weight It is 2/3 dry. An example of weight loss 
comparison is given by Ester Dicky in Passport For Survival. She says roughly 1 oz. dried equals lib. An example shows that 16 
fresh aprjrots can equal approximately one pound while 175 dried apricots equal 1 lb. Four pounds of fresh meat equals 1 lb. of 
dried. 



¥bu con use both these general tests, but with experience you will be able to determine by texture, etc. as to what is dry and 
what is not. 

ft Is best to store for ten days to too weeks produce that has just been dried. A large bottle with gauze cover over the lid will do. 
All remaining moisture can then be air dried. Study your product, looking for any pieces that may not be completely dry. If you 
feet your product needs a bit more drying, it is better to pop them bade Into your dryer for a day then to let them develop a mold. 

You con store your finished product in paper sacks, plastic bags or old chipped canning jars. They should keep for up to five 
years, but are better used within two years. 

ENJOY'. 

Maria Mondragon Valdez 



My experiences are in my climate, which is basically mountain 
desert. In more humid climates and less sunny environments, 
one must take extra care during drying and storage. Use your 
head: dry only during long, sunny periods. If you get caught by 
a wet period or a cloudy week, finish your drying in an oven at 
low temperatures or over the kitchen stove. Take care with 
storage and rotate your supply. 



Try These Recipes: 

'GARDEN SOUP MIX; (Prepared In bulk but used in portions depending on your personal 
taste). Dehydrate separately, mix and store in large jar - carrots, celery, omions, tomatoes, 
parsley, rosemary, thyme. Use in pinches or by cupfull, depending on your taste. Add just a 
few minutes before serving. Good for stews, broth, or as croutons. Blend or crust some of 
the mixture and use as a Masoning salt. You can add any other vegetables or greens you 
have available. 

'SEASONING SALT MIX: Dehydrate separately, mix, crush or blend and store in jars ■ 
lettuce, cabbage, turnips, carrots, anions, garlic, dill, and other herbs. Use like table salt to 
season foods. 

'FRUIT MIX {Dehydrate separately) - cherries, apricots, pears, apples, etc. Either dry or 
purchase coconut, seeds, and nuts. Mix and store. Great for traveling snacks. 

'HOT GREEN CHILI MIX (Dehydrate separately, mix whole or blend Into powder) ■ green 
chill in skins {deseeded), larlic, onions, oregano and/or cumin. Add to stews in dry state or 
add a small amount of water and blend into puree for soups, beans, hominy, or meat broth. 

'HOT RED CHILI MIX {Dehydrate red chili pods and garlic separately, deseed red chill after 
drying and store whole pods) - Puree chili and garlic with water to reconstitute. Use 
sparingly and refrigerate after reconstituting. Great for hominy, beans, or meat broth to 
make red chill. 



The authors assume no rwpofwfcflay. either expressed or implied, for the performance, longevity, or reliability of systems 

, or injury or damage to persons, materials, or property during die construction or operation of said 




Building The Solar Food Dryer 



The construction of the solar food dryer will require some ba3ic carpentry skills and a few common household tools. Following is 
a list of the essential tools: 

* Hand saw or skill saw, if available 

* Hammer 

* Tope measure 

' Framing square or tri-sauare 

* Woodrasp 

* Screwdriver 
' Tin snips 

* Staple gun 

* Brace and 1", W auger bits 

* Keyhole sow 

* Point brush 

* Cha/Jttnggun 

* Sftinor i t 

* Pencils 
ooanngpan 



MatertabA^ the/bod dryer can be new, scrounged, or recycled. If purchased locally, the cost should be about $50. The 
following hat contains the materials which, when used skillfully, should result with a loss of less than ten percent. 



3-2"x4"xl0' 
2-r'x4"xl2' 

1 - 4'x8'x W exterior grade plywood 
9- I"x2"x8' wood furring strips 
2Q'l"xW molding 
1 * 2' x 8" sheet of plastering metal lath 

1 -2'x4' piece ofW celotex insulating sheathing or equal amount of I" insulation 

24sq. ft* nylon mesh for food trays 

1 - 2* x 4* piece of corrugated roofing metal 

1-2'x 4' sheet or strips of aluminum foil 

1 - heat resistant fiat black spray paint or stoae polish 

1 - l"x 4" x 2' or equivalent for air intake vent 

16" sq. ft. of dear fiberglass (greenhouse grade) or glass equivalent. Plastic may be used but has a limited lift time of a year or 

6" x 22" screen {for insect protection) less 

6 - 2" utility hinges/screws 

% -lb. no. 16 cement coated nails 

Vi - lb. 1W galvanised nails 

2- 4Vt"xW bolts, nuts and washers 

1 - quart exterk* grade paint or water seal 

1 - tube chalking compound {silicone) 

2 - screen door latches {hooks and eyes) 
Vt - lb. 6D box nails 

Vi - lb . 4D box nails 



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FIGURE 1 - FRAMING FOR FOOD DRYER BOX 




ILLUSTRATION #4 ILLUSTRATION #2 



The construction of the solar food dryer begins by cutting 4 ■ 2" x 4" x 6' pieces of wood — these will form the main structural 
members for the box. The two front pieces con be rounded as shown in the detail enlargement; this gives the dryer a more 
streamline look. However, the comers can be square if desired. The next step is to nail the 17" braces, two for each section as 
shown in the drawing. These are toenailed with "16 nails The finished section should resemble Illustration #1. 

After these sections are finished, they may now be aligned and joined with the 18" braces, 3 for each side spaced as shown in 
the drawing. (Illustration 2.) These main structural elements now compose the frame to which the sides and bottom are attached. 
Two 3'x2' pieces of Vi" plywood are cut for nailing onto the sides with the IV2" galvanized nails. {Illustration #4) The box can be 
placed in the ground or flat surface {Illustration *5) to ease fabrication. Once the sides are nailed, the box becomes sturdy and is 
now solid enough to stand upright (Illustration *6) The inside will look like Illustration #7. A piece of plywood 18" x 24" is cut and 
nailed on the bottom forming the cover. (Illustration *Q The door and vent are cut from a piece of plywood to a size of 22" x 3'. 
The vent is 6" x 22" while the door is30"x 22". (Figure *2) The figure below shows how the door and vent are attached. 



22~x 6>**VCHT- 



22*00* POOR- 




1 HOOK^Ctfe 





Top vent is 
designed to open 
upward to release 
hot air, inside vent 
area is screened 
for insects. 



The door can be 
designed to open 
either way. The hooks 
& eyes are the latches 
for securing the doors. 




ILLUSTRATION #8 



FIGURE #2 
VENT AND DOOR 
DIMENSION 



— ILLUSTRATION #5 — 




7J* mofdfng for supporting the food treys is cut from 1 "x 2" furring strip. These are cut to a length of 24"; a total of 12 pieces 
are needed to form the slides for the 6 food trays. (Figure 3) . The strips are spaced evenly and nailed to the sides as shown. 




The second phase of construction inuoloes the building of the solar collector — the heat source for the dryer. The collector is 
designed to trap the solar energy oia the greer.hcu.ut effect which is created within the transparent cover: 



•MMBPAKWT COVe* 

<iavm» Menu, la 



ALUMINUM rH>IL 




Incoming solar energy 
is trapped by the 
transparent cover and 
is absorbed by the 
lath and corrugated metal 
thus raising th* temperature 
of the air within the 
collector. 



FIGURE 4 - THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND COLLECTOR CROSS-SECTION 



The solar collector will be heating air which enters the bottom vent and flows upward through natural connection. The following 
illustration shows the dimensions and how the air circulates: 




FIGURE 5 - FOOD DRYER SOLAR COLLECTOR 



The sotar collector is capable of producing air temperatures up to 150° F. In order to control the temperature the bottom hinged 
vent can be opened or closed to either slow or speed up the air flow. A fast flow will produce lower temperatures while a slow flow 
will raise the temperature. With a little practice, the dryer can be "tuned" to achieve the desired temperature. 



We can also adopt the collector for use as a window-box heater by modifying the design: 




FIGURE 6 - SOLAR COLLECTOR ADAPTED AS WINDOW BOX HEATER 



If this design is desired, the collector will have to remain stationary at the chosen angle. With the previous design, the collector 
can be seasonally adjusted at a variety of angles. A steeper angle functions well during the winter, while a less inclined angle 
gives maximum summer heat gain. The collector also functions as an automatic valve; when the air is cool or there is no sun, the 
cool air mitt settle to the bottom of the collector, thus stopping the flow. 

The window box heater will require a little more fabrication, but can fulfill two functions — food drying and space heating. The 
illustration below shows construction details and adaption to food dryer box. 




en as follows: 



flexible seal strip 




vantage of maximum adjustment seasonally and also can be detached for ease In portability 
\stment the seal between the collector and the box must be checked and sealed for air leaks 



SOLAR COLLECTOR CONSTRUCTION 

This section will describe the building of the collector as designed for food drying only. 
We will begin by cutting 2 ■ 4' x 6" pieces of 2" x 4" for use as the collector sides. Two22" 
pieces of 2" x 4" are nailed as follows: 



22" cecesff&Ace. 




e>ACK IS COVER EP WITH 

3L.OTS are car fOK 

APAPTlON TO FOOP BOY 



FIGURE 9 - COLLECTOR BOX 



Once the two braces are nailed the plywood can be cut to a size of 25" x 48". This can now be nailed and the cetotex cut to 
22" x 45" far the inside. The top and bottom vents can be cut by drilling a hole and using the keyhole saw. Aluminum foil is 
shaped to the cefotex with the shiny side up towards, the absorber or corrugated metal. The foil serves to reflect heat up towards 
the plate. We can now cut a piece of corrugated roofing metal to 22" x45". This plate is fastened over the aluminum foil. If new 
metal is used, ft must be scrubbed with uinegar to remove shiny surface so the paint will stick. After the metal is scrubbed and 
washed with water, the plate can now be painted with a flat black heat resistant paint or stove polish {Illustration *9). A sheet of 
metal lath is folded over forming two layers. The lath is stapled or nailed to the box sides about 1 " above corrugated metal, and is 
also painted flat black. (Illustration *10). The collector can now be fitted onto the box, once the collector is aligned at maximum 
winter angle, the corresponding holes on the food box are drilled to accept the 4Vi" bolts. (Illustration #11). A 2" x 4" x 18" 
brace is nailed over the top collector plenum to function as a stop and nailer for the fiberglass or transparent cover (See Figure #9 
detail. The bolts are now inserted in the botes attaching the collector to the food box. 

After the paint is dried, we can begin to "glaze", or cover the collector. A piece of fiberglass is cut to fit the collector, the side 
and top of the food box. The fiberglass or glass, plastic, etc., is fitted over the 2" x 4" perimeter edges. Wood molding (1W x 
V*") is placed over the cover and can be either nailed with galvanized nails or wood screws. (Wiafottion*>£). After this is done, all 
the edges around the glazed areas are chalked to create a seal for air leaks and weather. 

The bottom collector vent and upper hot air vent and door are hinged (Figure #2). Once all the vents are complete, a finish coat 
of paint or water sealer is applied over alt areas and molding exposed to the weather. The food trays are inserted in the box 
making it ready for the solar food drying process that follows (ttlustration*lZ). 




ILLUSTRATION # 12 



The Multipurpose Food Dryer 



i/ a more permanent food dryer is desired, then there is the option of building it right into the home. A south-facing orientation 
Is the basic site requirement for the construction. This food dryer can also be used as a space heater providing the shelter with 
daytime heating while drying food at the same time. A design by the author shows how a multi-purpose "solar collector" can 
fulfill the functions of drying, space heating* and spring cold frame for plant starters. The following {{lustrations provide a look of 
such on evolution: 



FIGURE 1 - Framing for the attached food-dryer, an angle of about 60° was chosen for maximum winter heat gain. The frame 
extends 30" from the house ana* consists of2"x4" spaced at 2/oot centers for fiberglass supports. 

FIGURE 2 - Front view of dryer showing bottom and top air ducts. 

FIGURE 3 * Outside cold air vent allows outdoor air to circulate through dryer and exhaust through hinged upper vent ■ a relief 
oaltte when hot air is not wanted in the house. 

FIGURE 4 - Results of the dryers effeciency. Side doors provide access to food trays. 






FIGURE #3 



FIGURE #4 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Cooking Cnattomly With Notural Foods; Edith and Sam Brown. Balentine Books, 1973 

Deaf Smith Country Cookbook; Maty Faulk Koock. Collier-Macmlllan Publishers, 1973. 
'Dry It, You'll Like It; Gen Mactnariiman. Living Food Dehydrators, 1974. 

Homegrown Sundwellings; Peter VanDressor. The Lightning Tree, 1977. 

Let's Cook It flight; Addle Davis. Signet Books, 1970. 
'Manna Foods of the Frontier; Gertrude Harris, 101 Productions, 1973. 
'Organic Gardening and Farming; Rodale Press. 
'Passport to Survival; Esther Dickey. Bookcraft Publications, 1969. 

'Putting Foods By; Janet Green, Ruth Hertzfaurg, and Beatrice Vaughn. The Stephen Press, 1975. 
'Solar Food Dehydrators, The Domestic Technology Institute, 1977. 

The Homestead Kitchen and Cellar; Grant and Holly Gilmore. Lancer Books, 1973. 

The Joy of Eating Natural Food*; Angues Tom's, Devin - Adair Co., 1971. 

USDA Research Service Booklet; Agriculture Handbook *8. Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed and Prepared. 

'Drying Fruits and Vegetables (Drying Charts and Yields *9.310) and (Preparation, Storage and Use "9.308). Pat Kendall. 
Cotorado Stale Extension Service Ft. Collins, Colorado 80523. 



"Detailed References Recommended. 



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1 AdLL d> oULAn rUUU UHYbH DATA onccT 


BATCH # LIGHT CONDITIONS DRYER COLLECTOR 

I nr.ATlON ANfil P 


DATE 


TIME 


WEIGHT 


INSIDE 
TEMP 


OUTSDE 
TEMP 


NOTES 


WEATHER 
CONDITIONS 


BEFORE 


AFTER